Beccaria, C. B (1738.3.15-94.11.28)
Birthplace Milan, Italy.
Posts Held Prof. Polit. Econ., Milan, 1768-70; Official, Austrian admisnistration of Milan, 1770-94.
Publications Books: 1. An Essay on Crimes and Punishments (1764, 1963); 2. Elementi di Economia Pubblica (1804).
Articles: 1. `An attempt at an analysis of smuggling', Il Caffe , 1764; repr. in Precursors of Mathematical Economics: an Authology , ed. W. J. Baumol and S. M. Coldfeld (LSE, 1968).
Career His early text on criminal law was an enormous international success and influenced the penal policies of many countries. His starting point was the utilitarian principle of the greatest happiness of the greatest number, according to which the test of the seriousness of a crime, and hence the nature of the punishment, is always social injury and not private intention. His brief tenure of the Milan chair produced an set of lectures, published posthumously, which touched on all the main current fields of economic analysis, and which contain a surprising number of hints of theoretical developments to come.
Secondary Literature C. Phillipson, Three Criminal Law Reformers: Beccaria, Bentham, Romilly (Dent, 1923): M. P. Mack, `Beccaria', International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , D. L. Sills (ed.) (Macmillan and Free Press, 1968), vol. 2; P. Groenewegen, `Turgot, Beccaria and Smith', in Alto Polo, Italian Economics, Past and Present , ed. P. Groenewegen and J. Halevi (Univ. of Sydney, 1983).

A Discourse on Public Economy and Commerce (
A Discourse on Public Economy and Commerce (
A Discourse on Public Economy and Commerce (

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