Hobbes, T (1588.4.5-1679.12.4)
 イギリスの哲学者。地方牧師の家に生れ,オックスフォードに学び (1603-08),卒業後カヴェンディシュ卿(のちのデヴォンシャー伯)およびその息子の家庭教師となって,フランス,イタリアへの旅行にも同行し (10-13;34-37),ことにフランスには3度の訪問をあわせて滞在20年に及んだ。彼はベーコン,ハーバード,ジョンソン,ガリレイやガッサンディ,メルセンヌと交際し,中でもメルセンヌとの交際はデカルトの著作を研究するうえに重要な機縁となった。クロムウェルの革命の動乱を逃れてフランスへ亡命,パリで著作活動に力を注いだ (40-51)。その著『リヴァイアサン』Leviathan, 1651で,教会の権威に批評的な論評をしたために教会方面ならびに王党からは烈しく非難されたが,このため帰国は却って容易になり,大赦令を機に帰国,共和制のもとで平静な学究生活を始めた (51- )。王政復古後はチャールズ二世に愛されつつデヴォンシャー家で幸福な晩年を送った。ホッブズの体系は物体論,人間論,国家論に分れる。物体だけを対象とする哲学は神学から峻別され,すべての知識の起源は物体の微小部分の運動によって起る感覚であるとする感覚主義的機械論の立場にたつ。人間は快を追求して不快を忌避するが,意志の自由はなく,最高の善は自己保存にある。国家は利己的動物としての人間の原始状態「万人に対する万人の戦Bellum omnium contra omnes」における各人の自己保存を相互に制限しつつ尊重することによって成立する。国家の主権者は無制限な権力を保持すべきであるとする。[主著]前記のほか:The elements of law, natural and politic, 1889(執筆1640);Elementa philosophiae (vol. 1, De corpore, 1655; vol. 2, De homine, 1658; vol. 3, De cive, 1642); Behemoth, 1680(執筆1668頃)。[文献]F. Toennies, T. Hobbes, 1896.(岩)


Leviathan (Univ.of Idaho)
Leviathan (tamu.edu)
Leviathan (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
Leviathan, or, The matter, form, & power of a common-wealth, ecclesiastical and civil (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Seven Philosophical Problems (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Proportion of a Straight Line to Half the Arc of a Quadrant (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Philosophical rudiments concerning government and society (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Atigmai, Ageometrias, Agroikias, Antipoliteias, Amatheias, or, Marks of the absurd geometry, rural language, Scottish church politics, and barbarisms of John Wallis, Professor of Geometry and Doctor of Divinity (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Decameron physiologicum, or, Ten dialofues of natural philosophy; to which is added The proportion of a straight line to half the arc of a quadrant (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The answer of Mr. Hobbes to Sir William Davenant's Preface before Gondibert (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Letters and Other Pieces (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Three Papers Presented to the Royal Society against Dr. Wallis. Together with Considerations on Dr. Wallis's Answer to Them (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Behemoth : the history of the causes of the Civil Wars of England, and of the counsels and artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1660 (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Letter to the Right Honourable Edward Howard (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Considerations on the Answer of Dr. Wallis (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The elements of law (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The elements of law Natural and Politic (1640) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
The elements of law Natural and Politic (1640) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
The elements of law Natural and Politic (1640) (unimelb.edu.au)
Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The art of rhetoric, plainly set forth with pertinent examplesfor the more easy understanding and practice of the same (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Considerations upon the reputation, loyalty (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
An Historical Narration concerning Heresy, and the Punishment thereof (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Six Lessons to the Savilian Professor of the Mathematics (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
An Answer to Bishop Bramhall's book, called "The catching of the Leviathan" (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The Art of Sophistry (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The Whole Art of Rhetoric (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The questions concerning liberty, necessity, and chance, clearly stated and debated between Dr. Bramhall, Bishop of Derry, and Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Of liberty and necessity (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Elements of philosophy (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
De Cive : Liverty (1651) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
De Cive : Liverty (1651) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
De Cive : Liverty (1651) (unimelb.edu.au)
De Cive : Dominion (1651) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
De Cive : Dominion (1651) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
De Cive : Dominion (1651) (unimelb.edu.au)
De Cive : Religion (1651) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
De Cive : Religion (1651) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
De Cive : Religion (1651) (unimelb.edu.au)
The Elements of Law Natural and Politic (1651) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
The Elements of Law Natural and Politic (1651) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
The Elements of Law Natural and Politic (1651) (unimelb.edu.au)

Online Hobbes
Online Bibliography (ritsumei.ac.jp) Source: (1)Hugh Macdonald and Mary Hargreaves, Thomas Hobbes: A Bibliography, London: The Bibliogaphical Society, 1952. (2)Charles H. Hinnant, Thomas Hobbes: A reference guide, Boston, MASS: G.K.Hall & CO., 1980. (3)Hobbes Studies, Vols.I (1987)-, Van Gorcum-Assen-The Netherlands.
Online Index of Hobbes (ritsumei.ac.jp) Works of Hobbes: (1)Elements of Law, (2)De Cive (English), (3)Leviathan.
Contents of THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW (ritsumei.ac.jp) Vol.1 (1824), Vol.2 (1824), Vol.3 (1825), Vol.4 (1825) , Vol.5 (1826), Vol.6 (1826), Vol.7 (1827), Vol.8 (1827), Vol.9 (1828), Vol.10 (1829), Vol.11 (1829), Vol.12 (1830), Vol.13 (1830). [PDF format]

Other Information
Hobbes' Page (usrealestate.com)

Reference Text
John Aubreym, A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
John Aubreym, A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
John Aubreym, A Brief Life of Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679 (unimelb.edu.au)
The Pre-History of Cognitive Science (humanitas.ucsb.edu)

Other Images
humanum.arts.cuhk.hk (75K)
Leviathan (28K) (nlx.com)


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