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Hume, D (1711.4.26-1776.8.25)

 イギリスの哲学者,歴史家,政治および経済思想家。エディンバラに生る。小資産ながら地方名家の出。父は法律家。生地の大学に古典,法律等を学び (1723-26頃) ,のち一時ブリストルの商社に勤めたが,哲学や文学への志強く,フランスに滞留 (34-37),その間の成果を『人性論』A treatise of human nature, 1739-40.として発表したが省みられず,かえって『道徳および政治論』Essays moral and political, 1741-48.が好評であった。この頃大学に職を求めたが成らず,某将軍の秘書としてフランス (46)およびイタリア (48)に随行した。『人間悟性論』An enquiry concerning human understanding, 1758 (Philosophical essays concerning human understanding, 1748の改題)以下道徳,政治等に関する論書を公にし (48-),次第に名声を得た。しかしグラスゴー大学への就職に失敗して (51),エディンバラの図書館司書となり,その研究『英国史』The history of England, 1754-61を刊行,その間宗教その他に関する論著を発表。ハートフォード (Hertford)伯の乞によって駐仏大使秘書官としてパリに滞在 (63-65),啓蒙思想家たちと交り,ルソーをイギリスに迎えたが,間もなく不和となったのは有名。ついで外務次官を勤め (67-69),郷里に隠棲して同地で没。彼はロックによって開かれた人間精神の経験的分析を徹底して「人性の原理」を明らかにし,これによって哲学の諸問題を解こうとした。すべての「観念」は「印象」から生じ,かつその固有の法則性(連想の法則)により高級観念ないし知識を生ずるという。ただこの検知からすれば,経験的科学の基礎たる因果の関係も,結局は習慣に基づく主観的な必然性をもつにすぎず,これを客観的とするのは我々の確信 (belief)による。いわゆる「物体」も諸性質の印象から生ずる観念に止り,「自己」即ち精神的実体も「観念の束」にすぎない。従って数学についてはともかく,実質的な科学については彼の分析は懐疑的結論となり,後にカントの批判哲学を生み出す動機となった。道徳思想は大体功利主義の傾向を有するが,道徳性を感情生活の面において捉え,徳の心理的な道徳感情に客観性と社会性を心性の面から解明しようとし,また彼の社会及び経済についての評論も,友人スミスとの関係において注目されている。[主著]前記のほか:Political discoursed, 1752; Essays and treatsises on several subjects, 1753-54; Four dissertations, 1757 (The natural history of religion, 1755を含む);自叙伝, 1777.[全集]Green, Grose (ed.), 4 vols, 1874.[文献]J. H. Burton, Life and correspondence of D. H. , 1846.(岩)



An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (wiretap.spies.com) (Harvard Classics)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (vt.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (columbia.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (ilt.columbia.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (tamu.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (std.com)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (notredame.ac.jp)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (Univ.of Idaho)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (file 1) (algonet.se)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (file 2) (algonet.se)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (cybercom.net)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (unimelb.edu.au)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (scf.usc.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (utm.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk) Harvard Classics
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of Hume's <A Treatise of Human Nature> from <The History of the Works of the Learned> (utm.edu)
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of David Hume's <An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals> from <The Monthry Review> (utm.edu)
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of David Hume's <Four Dissertations> from <The Monthry Review> (utm.edu)
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of David Hume's <Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion> from <The Monthry Review> (utm.edu)
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of David Hume's <Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul> from <The Gentleman's Magazine> (utm.edu)
The Early British Reviews of Hume's Writings; Review of David Hume's <Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul> from <The Monthry Review> (utm.edu)
The Natural History of Religion (Univ.of Idaho)
The Natural History of Religion (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
The Natural History of Religion (utm.edu)
The Natural History of Religion (utm.edu)
Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul (Univ.of Idaho)
Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul (tamu.edu)
Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul (tamu.edu) The complete 1783 edition
Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk) THE COMPLETE UNAUTHORIZED 1783 EDITION
Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
My Own Life (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
My Own Life (utm.edu)
An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals (virginia.edu) due to licensing requirements
Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary (virginia.edu)due to licensing requirements
A Treatise of Human Nature (virginia.edu)due to licensing requirements
A Treatise of Human Nature (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
A Treatise of Human Nature (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
A Treatise of Human Nature (unimelb.edu.au)
Of Money (1752) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Of Money (1752) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Of Money (1752) (unimelb.edu.au)
Of the Balance of Trade (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Of the Balance of Trade (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Of the Balance of Trade (unimelb.edu.au)
Of Interest (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Of Interest (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Of Interest (unimelb.edu.au)
Of the Jealousy of Trade (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Of the Jealousy of Trade (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Of the Jealousy of Trade (unimelb.edu.au)
On Public Credit (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
On Public Credit (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
On Public Credit (unimelb.edu.au)
Of Taxes (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Of Taxes (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Of Taxes (unimelb.edu.au)
My Own Life (1776) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
My Own Life (1776) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
My Own Life (1776) (unimelb.edu.au)
A Letter from a Gentleman to his Friend in Edinburgh (1745) (utm.edu)
A Letter from a Gentleman to his Friend in Edinburgh (1745) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)

More Information
blueball David Hume: Works and Autograph Letters (chuo-u.ac.jp) (中央大学ヒュームコレクション)
The Hume Society (oxy.edu)
The Hume Archives (utm.edu)
The Hume Archives (utm.edu) (gopher)
Edinburghers (hw.ac.uk)
Hume (hw.ac.uk)
Hume's Page (usrealestate.com)
Ty's David Hume Homepage (geocities.com) Created and maintained by D. Tycerium Lightner

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humanum.arts.cuhk.hk (23K) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
Portraits of Well-known Economists (econ.duke.edu) Duke University

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