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Keynes, J. M (1883.6.5-1946.4.20)

Birthplace Cambridge, Cambridgeshire, England.
Post Held Civil Servant, UK India Office, 1906-8, UK Treasury, 1915-19, 1940-5; Teacher Econ., Univ. Camb., 1908-42; Businessman, including Chairman, Nat. Mutual Life Insurance Co., 1921-38; Journalist for various papers including The Nation (Chairman, 1923-9).
Degree MA Univ. Camb., 1905.
Offices and Honours Fellow, BA; Pres., RES; Governor, IBRD; Dir., Bank of England; Ed., EJ, 1911-44; created Viscount, 1942.
Publications Books: 1. Indian Currency and Finance (1913), Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, eds. E. Johnson and D. Moggridge, vol. 1 (1971) ; 2. The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919), Collected Writings, vol.2 (1971); 3. A Treatise on Probability, Collected Writings, vol.8 (1973); 4. A Tract on Monetary Reform (1923), Collected Writings, vol.4 (1971); 5. A Treatise on Money, 2 vols (1930), Collected Writings, vol.5, 6 (1971); 6. Essays in Biography (1933), Collected Writings, vol.10 (1972); 7. The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money (1936), Collected Writings, vol.7 (1973)
Career Unquestionably the major figure in twentieth-century British economics. His reputation does not rest purely on the General Theory, which initiated the so-called 'Keynisian revolution', but also on his other writings, most notably the Treatise on Money, his immensely influential work place in the cultural and intellectual life of his day. His trenchant criticism of the 1919 treaty with Germany first raised tively undermined support for the treaty. During World War II, he was the chief architect of British economic policy and made a major contribution to post-war economic reconstruction through his participation in the Bretton Woods Conference and the founding of the IMF. His early economic work was very much within the Marshallian traditon, but during the crises of the 1920s he increasingly came to identify deflationary ploicies as the causes of much of the problem. From this beginning he developed his new theory of employment and his theories of interest, wages and money. The gradual but increasingly widespread acceptance of all or part of his views raised Keynesianism for a while to the position of a prevailing orthodoxy. In recent years, his star has begun to wane. Even so he remains to this day one of the three or four most influential economists that ever lived.
Secondary Literature R. F. Harrod, The Life of John Maynard Keynes (Macmillan, 1951); `Keynes, John Maynard', International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , D. L. Sills (ed.) (Macmillan and Free Press, 1968), vol. 8; D. E. Moggridge, Keynes (Fontana, 1976); R. Skidelsky, John Maynard Keynes, 1 - Hopes Betrayed 1889-1920 (Macmillan, 1983); John Maynard Keynes - Critical Assessments, 4 vols, ed. J. C. Wood (Croom Helm, 1983). [Mark Blaug, Great Economists Before Keynes: An Introduction to the Lives and Works of One Hundread Great Economists of the Past , Brighton: Wheatsheaf, 1986.]

The Economic Consequences of the Peace (1919) (
The World's Economic Outlook (1932) (

Other texts
John Maynard Keynes( by Milton Friedman from The Laissez Faire City Times, Vol 3, No 10, March 8, 1999
Why are't we all Keynesians yet?( by Paul Krugman

Other Information
The John Maynard Keynes Papers in King's College, Cambridge(
J. M. Keynes/R. Harrod, Letters and Memoranda( JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES, Correspondence and Memoranda with ROY HARROD (227 items)

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Hall of Economists (

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