Photo by InteLex Corporation
Locke, J (1632.8.29-1704.10.28)

 イギリスの哲学者,政治思想家。ウェストミンスター学校に入り (1646),ついでオックスフォードのクライスト・チャーチで哲学,政治,宗教を学び (52-58),のち自然科学,とくに医学を研究した (64頃-)。一時,公使の秘書としてブランデンブルクに滞在し (65-66),アシュリ卿(のちのシャフツベリ伯)と知って (66),その侍医,顧問および子弟の教師となる。伯が大法官になると共に,官途についたが,伯の失脚と共に退き (75),健康上および研究のため南フランスに遊び (同-79),帰国して再び官吏になったが,伯の政治的陰謀に参画の疑を受けオランダに亡命 (83),各地に転々しつつ学者と交わり,また主著その他を執筆。帰国して (89),翌年『人間悟性論』Essay concerning human understanding, 1690を発表。エセックスに隠退 (1700)。彼は認識論の創始者,啓蒙哲学の開拓者であるのみならず,その政治,教育,宗教等の思想は本国およびフランスに著しい影響を与えた。初めデカルト思想に関心を寄せたが,その「本有観念」思想を厳しく批判して,観念の経験的発生を説き,これに悟性作用が働いて複雑高級な観念および知識が生ずるとした。とくに物性を「第一」および「第二」に分け,前者(形,大いさ,固体性等)のみ物に内在すると説いた。更に意見,同意,信念についても,その確実性の根拠を明らかにしようと試み,従って超理性的ではあるが反理性的ではないとする。故に宗教問題においては,啓示宗教の意義も認めたが,理神論的な自然宗教を重んじた。しかし宗教の自由を主張し,国家の宗派的偏向を排除した。彼の政治思想は,専制主義および族長主義等に反対し,国民の自由と政治的秩序との調和を目的とする。国家の成立については契約説をとるが,理性の支配を保つために立憲制を主張,かつ三権分立を説いた。この思想はモンテスキューを通じフランスその他に影響した。[前記のほか:Epistola de tolerantia, 1689; 1690; 1692; Two treatises of government, 1690; Some thoughts concerning education, 1693; The reasonableness of Christianity, 1695.[全集]ロンドン版, 10 vols., 1801.[文献]H. R. Fox Bourne, The life of J. Locke, 2 vols., 1876.(岩)


An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (vt.edu)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (Univ.of Idaho)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (tamu.edu)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (cybercom.net)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Search Engine for this text (arts.cuhk.edu.hk)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (panoramix.univ-paris1.fr)
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (knuten.liu.se)
An Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government (1690) (odur.let.rug.nl)
An Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent and End of Civil Government (1690) (ilt.columbia.edu) 6th Edition
A Letter Concerning Toleration (vt.edu)
A Letter Concerning Toleration (Univ.of Idaho)
A Letter Concerning Toleration (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk) translated by William Popple
A Letter Concerning Toleration (knuten.liu.se) translated by William Popple
A Letter Concerning Toleration (odur.let.rug.nl) translated by William Popple
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (vt.edu)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (Univ.of Idaho)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (1690) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (1690) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (1690) (unimelb.edu.au)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (1690) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
Concerning Civil Government, Second Essay (1690) (ipf.simplenet.com) Eclectic Electronic Text Archive
Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money, Wherein Mr. Lowndesユs Arguments for it in his late Report concerning An Essay for the Amendment of Silver Coins, are particularly Examined (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money, Wherein Mr. Lowndesユs Arguments for it in his late Report concerning An Essay for the Amendment of Silver Coins, are particularly Examined (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Further Considerations Concerning Raising the Value of Money, Wherein Mr. Lowndesユs Arguments for it in his late Report concerning An Essay for the Amendment of Silver Coins, are particularly Examined (unimelb.edu.au)
Of the Conduct of the Understanding (ilt.columbia.edu) Foreword by LAWRENCE A. CREMIN; Edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by FRANCIS W. GARFORTH
Second Treatise of Government (wiretap.spies.com) Hackett Publishing Company
Second Treatise of Government (knuten.liu.se)
Short Observations on a Printed Paper, Entitled "For Encouraging the Coining Silver Money in England, and after for keeping it here." (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Short Observations on a Printed Paper, Entitled "For Encouraging the Coining Silver Money in England, and after for keeping it here." (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Short Observations on a Printed Paper, Entitled "For Encouraging the Coining Silver Money in England, and after for keeping it here." (unimelb.edu.au)
Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest and the Raising the Value of Money (unimelb.edu.au)
Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1693) (socsci.kun.nl) from the edition included in The Educational Writings of John Locke, edited by John William Adamson, published by Cambridge University Press in 1922

Other Information
Locke's Page (usrealestate.com)
The Locke Institute (his.com)
Complete Locke, John (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk) biography
Chris' Philosophy page (geocities.com)
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy (utm.edu)
John Locke - Selected primary works on economics (mcmaster.ca)
John Locke - Selected primary works on economics (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
John Locke - Selected primary works on economics (unimelb.edu.au)

Reference Text
Locke's Theory of the State (socsci.mcmaster.ca) Proceedings of the British Academy, vol., 2, 1904
Locke's Theory of the State (ecn.bris.ac.uk) Proceedings of the British Academy, vol., 2, 1904
Locke's Theory of the State (unimelb.edu.au) Proceedings of the British Academy, vol., 2, 1904
The Pre-History of Cognitive Science (humanitas.ucsb.edu)
John Locke Bibliography/A List of Recent Publications (libraries.psu.edu)
Richard S. Westfall's Locke Page (libraries.psu.edu) factual and biographical data about Locke
Safe Haven (ultranet.com)

References and other Images
The opening pages of Locke's fifth essay on natural law (64K) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
The title page from a 1690 edition of Locke's An Essay concerning Human Understanding (32K) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
Locke's other image (16K) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
John Locke, a painting by John Greenhill. (National Portrait Gallery, London) (51K) (humanum.arts.cuhk.hk)
Department of Economics, The New School for Social Research (econ.jhu.edu)
Center d'Histoire de la Pensée Economique (univ-paris1.fr)


Go back to Akamac E-text Links