Birthplace Zamosc, Russia.
Post Held Polit. Leader, German Social Democratic Party; Lect., Party School, Berlin, 1907-.
Degrees Dr Univ. Zürich, 1898.
Publications Books: 1. Die Industrielle Entwicklung Polens (1898); 2. The Accumulation of Capital (1913, 1951); 3. Gesammelte Werke, vols 3, 4 and 6 only (1922-8); 4. Ausgewählte Reden und Schriften, 2 vols (1951).
Career A founder of the Social Democratic Party of Poland, the leader of the Left Wing of the German Social Democrats and a prominent Marxist economic theoretician. In Accumulation of Capital she argued that capitalism must expand into underdeveloped countries and non-capitalist areas because of an inherent insufficiency of aggregate demand. In this way capitalism is an essential cause of the international tensions and instabilities that characterise the modern world. She was murdered whilst in military custody during the 1919 German Revolution.
Secondary Literature J. P. Nettle, Rosa Luxemburg, 2 vols (OUP, 1966); T. Dowalik, `Luxemburg, Rosa', International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , D. L. Sills (ed.) (Macmillan and Free Press, 1968), vol. 9.