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Malthus, T. R (1766.2.17-1834.12.13)

 イギリスの経済学者。ケンブリッジ大学に学び,初めサリ州のアルバリ (Albury)の副牧師となり (1798),のちヘーリバリ (Haileybury)の東インド会社附属学院の近代史および経済学教授となる (1805- )。ゴドウィンPolitical justice, 1793などに見られる社会主義的思想を批判して主著『人口論』An essay on the principle of population as it affects the future improvement of society, 1798を書き,理想社会の実現に関する見解を発表した。彼の「人口法則」によれば人口の自然増加は幾何級数をたどるが,生活資料は算術級数で増加するに過ぎないから,この過剰人口による貧困の増大は避けられない,これに対する唯一の方策は,同書第2版 (03)に説かれているように,禁欲を伴う結婚年齢の延期,即ち「道徳的抑制」である。この学説は,人間の不幸を宿命論的な自然法則の結果であるとし,これにより資本主義社会の矛盾を合理化して社会主義的思想に反撃を加えたものである。また彼の『経済学原理』Principles of political economy, 1820は,リカードウに反対して富,労働,価値,差額地代,恐慌などに関する自説を述べたものであるが,もっぱら地主および資本家を擁護する立場をとっている。彼はイギリス経済学における「古典派」の代表的経済学者であった。[主著]前記のほか:Observations on the effects of the Corn Laws, 1815; An inquiry into the nature and progress of rent, 1815; The grounds of an opinion on the policy of restricting the importation of foreign corn, 1815; The measure of value stated and illustrated, 1823; Definitions in political economy, 1827.[文献]J. Bonar, M. and his work, 1885; K. Smith, The Malthusian controversy, 1951.(岩)


The Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn : intended as an Appendix to (1815) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
The Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn : intended as an Appendix to (1815) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
The Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn : intended as an Appendix to (1815) (unimelb.edu.au)
The Grounds of an Opinion on the Policy of Restricting the Importation of Foreign Corn : intended as an Appendix to (1815) (yale.edu)
An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers (1798) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers (1798) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
An Essay on the Principle of Population, as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society with Remarks on the Speculations of Mr. Godwin, M. Condorcet, and Other Writers (1798) (unimelb.edu.au)
An Investigation of the Couse of the Present High Price of Provisions (1800) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
An Investigation of the Couse of the Present High Price of Provisions (1800) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
An Investigation of the Couse of the Present High Price of Provisions (1800) (unimelb.edu.au)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is regulated (1815) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is regulated (1815) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is regulated (1815) (unimelb.edu.au)
An Inquiry into the Nature and Progress of Rent, and the Principles by which it is regulated (1815) (yale.edu)
Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in the Price of Corn on the Agriculture and General Wealth of the Country (1814) (socsci.mcmaster.ca)
Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in the Price of Corn on the Agriculture and General Wealth of the Country (1814) (ecn.bris.ac.uk)
Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in the Price of Corn on the Agriculture and General Wealth of the Country (1814) (unimelb.edu.au)
Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws, and of a Rise or Fall in the Price of Corn on the Agriculture and General Wealth of the Country (1814) (yale.edu)

Other Resource
Bibliography of works about R. Malthus (Augustana.AB.CA)

Other Image
Hall of Economists (wiso.uni-erlangen.de)
Portraits of Well-known Economists (econ.duke.edu) Duke University


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