Birthplace Neu Sandec, Austro-Hungary.
Posts Held Member, Press Section, Austrian Prime Minister's Office: Lect., Extraordinary Prof., Full Prof., Univ. Vienna, 1873, 1879-1903; Tutor, Archduke Rudolf, 1876.
Degrees Dr Law Univ. Cracow, 1867.
Publications Books: 1. Principles of Economics (1871, 1934, 1950); 2. Problems of Economics and Sociology , ed. L. Schneiner (1883, 1963); 3. Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciencis with Special Reference to Economics (1884, 1985); 4. Collected Works of Carl Menger , 4 vols (1933-6).
Career The founder of the Austrian school of marginal analysis whose international influence was wider than that of his co-discoverers, Walras and Jevons. The Principles is a detailed account of the relations between utility, value and price. He was also the initiator and a major participant in the `Methodenstreit' with the German Historical School. He argued that a `compositive method'of analysing society was more effective than the use of history to discover empirical laws about society. His contribution to the 1892 dispute on the reform of the Austrian currency was the basis of later Austrian theory on the value of money.
Scondary Literature F. A. von Hayek, `Menger, Carl', International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences , D. L. Sills (ed.) (Macmillan and Free Press, 1968), vol. 10; J. A. Schumpeter, `Carl Menger, 1840-1921', in Ten Great Economists from Marx to Keynes (OUP, 1951); J. R. Hicks and W. Weber, eds. Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics (OUP, 1973).